The foundation for instructional design was laid during World War II when hundreds of thousands needed to be taught very specific tasks in a short amount of time. Individual aspects of these complex tasks were broken down, so soldiers could better understand and comprehend each step of the process. This approach was later taken and built upon leading to the development of instructional design, a field of study that marries education, psychology and communications to create the most effective teaching plans for specific groups of students. This is vital because it ensures that students receive instructions in a form that is effective and meaningful to them, helping them better understand the topics and concepts being taught.
Simply put, instructional design is the creation of instructional materials. Though, this field goes beyond simply creating teaching materials, it carefully considers how students learn and what materials and methods will most effectively help individuals achieve their academic goals. The principles of instructional design consider how educational tools should be designed, created and delivered to any learning group, from grade school students to adult employees across all industry sectors.
Source: Purdue University Online
An instructional design model provides guidelines to organize appropriate pedagogical scenarios to achieve instructional goals. Instructional design can be defined as the practice of creating instructional experiences to help facilitate learning most effectively. Driscoll & Carliner (2005) states that “ design is more than a process; that process, and resulting product, represent a framework of thinking” (p. 9).
Instructional design models describe how to conduct the various steps. These steps involve instructional design process. The models help trainers and educators to guide and plan the overall process.
Branch & Kopcha say that “instructional design is intended to be an iterative process of planning outcomes, selecting effective strategies for teaching and learning, choosing relevant technologies, identifying educational media and measuring performance” (p. 77).
There are numerous instructional design models. These are commonly accepted design models:
According to Branch and Merrill (2002), there are several characteristics that should be present in all instructional design models:
Gustafson, K. L., & Branch, R. M. (2002). What is instructional design? Trends and issues in instructional design and technology, 16-25.
Branch, R. M., & Kopcha, T. J. (2014). Instructional design models. In Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 77-87). Springer New York.
Driscoll, M., Carliner, S. (2005) Advanced Web-Based Training: Adapting Real World Strategies in Your Online Learning, Pfeiffer. ISBN 0787969796
Cite this article as: Kurt, S. "Instructional Design Models and Theories," in Educational Technology, December 9, 2015. Retrieved from https://educationaltechnology.net/instructional-design-models-and-theories/
Applying instructional design methodologies to humane society training helps to achieve desired learning outcomes.